Prepared by Justin Sider with Langdon Hammer

this bibliography, recording sources for James Merrill: Life and Art, is divided into two parts. The first provides a comprehensive overview of primary and secondary materials for readers and scholars of James Merrill, including all of Merrill’s book publications and the criticism (including articles, book chapters, and monographs, but excluding interviews and book reviews) published during and after his life. Included also are links to the major repositories of James Merrill materials at Washington University in St. Louis, Yale University, Amherst College, and other locations.

the list of secondary materials in Part One relies on and extends the materials assembled in James Ingram Merrill: A Descriptive Bibliography by Jack Hagstrom and Bill Morgan, which gives publication information for Merrill materials through 2007, as well as those in Timothy Materer’s online list of “Writings on James Merrill, 1968-2012,” hosted by the University of Missouri.

part Two lists materials (excluding letters and journals) specifically referred to in James Merrill: Life and Art. Some materials in Part Two duplicate those in Part One. They are organized in several categories: primary materials from Merrill’s archives; biographical context (early school reports, news articles on the Merrill-Magowan family, biographical notes on friends and acquaintances); writing by Merrill’s family and friends; notable reviews of Merrill’s work; and extended context, which includes a wide range of materials both documentary or scholarly and aesthetic or literary that helped to fill in the portrait of Merrill in Life and Art. This section includes works by Merrill’s associates that are referred to in the biography (but not classic works by, for instance, Shakespeare or Proust that are also referred to).

readers who want to study reviews of Merrill’s work should consult Hagstrom and Morgan. Many interviews with Merrill have been collected in JM’s Collected Prose (2004). Merrill’s correspondence, diaries, journals, and Ouija transcripts can be located and sometimes accessed via the links to the Merrill archives below.

PART ONE: James Merrill Primary and Secondary Sources


jim’s Book: A Collection of Poems and Short Stories, privately printed, 1942.

the Black Swan (Athens: Icarus, 1946).

first Poems (New York: Knopf, 1951).

short Stories (Pawlet: Banyan Press, 1954).

the Country of a Thousand Years of Peace (New York: Knopf, 1959, revised edition, Atheneum, 1970).

selected Poems (London: Chatto & Windus, 1961).

water Street (New York: Atheneum, 1962).

nights and Days (New York: Atheneum, 1966).

the Fire Screen (New York: Atheneum, 1969).

braving the Elements (New York: Atheneum, 1972).

two Poems: From the Cupola and the Summer People (London: Chatto & Windus, 1972).

yannína (New York: Phoenix Book Shop, 1973).

the Yellow Pages: 59 Poems (Cambridge: Temple Bar Bookshop, 1974).

divine Comedies (New York: Atheneum, 1976).

metamorphosis of 741 (Chicago: Banyan Press, 1977).

mirabell: Books of Number (New York: Atheneum, 1978).

scripts for the Pageant (New York: Atheneum, 1980).

the Changing Light at Sandover (New York: Atheneum, 1982).

from the First Nine: Poems 1946-1976 (New York: Atheneum, 1982).

from the Cutting-Room Floor (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983).

late Settings (New York: Atheneum, 1985).

the Inner Room (New York: Knopf, 1988).

selected Poems, 1946-1985 (New York: Knopf, 1992).

a Scattering of Salts (New York: Knopf, 1995).

self-Portrait in Tyvek Windbreaker and Other Poems (Dublin: Dedalus Press, 1995).

collected Poems, eds. J. D. McClatchy and Stephen Yenser (New York: Knopf, 2001).

selected Poems, eds. J.D. McClatchy and Stephen Yenser (New York: Knopf, 2008).


the Immortal Husband (produced in New York, 1955), published in Playbook (New York: New Directions, 1956).

the Bait (produced in New York, NY, 1953), published in Artists Theatre (New York: Grove, 1960).

the Image Maker: A Play in One Act (New York: Sea Cliff Press, 1986).

collected Novels and Plays, eds. J. D. McClatchy and Stephen Yenser (New York: Knopf, 2005).


the Seraglio [novel] (New York: Knopf, 1957; reprinted, New York: Atheneum, 1987).

the (Diblos) Notebook [novel] (New York: Atheneum, 1965: reprinted, Normal, IL: Dalkey Archive Press, 1994).

recitative: Prose [nonfiction] (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1986).

a Different Person: A Memoir (New York: Knopf, 1993).

Collected Prose, eds. J.D. McClatchy and Stephen Yenser (New York: Knopf, 2004).

Collected Novels and Plays, eds. J.D. McClatchy and Stephen Yenser (New York: Knopf, 2005).

Notable Archives

The James Merrill Papers, Department of Special Collections, Olin Library, Washington University in St. Louis:

David Jackson Papers, Department of Special Collections, Olin Library, Washington University in St. Louis:

The James Merrill Papers, Beinecke Library, Yale University:

James I. Merrill Materials, Archives & Special Collections, Amherst College:

Merrill-Magowan Family Papers, 1884-2002, Five College Archives and Manuscript Collections, Amherst College:

James Ingram Merrill Collection, 1923-2000, Emory University:

The James Merrill House, Stonington, CT:

Claude Fredericks Journals and Letters, 1916-1988, Getty Research Institute, Special Collections:

Critical Essays and Monographs

Don Adams, “Heroes without Name or Origin: James Merrill’s Poetry of Loss,” Notes On Contemporary Literature 26.2-4 (1996).

——, “Merrill’s ‘A Prism,’” The Explicator 54.3 (1996): 185-87.

——, James Merrill’s Poetic Quest (Westport: Greenwood, 1997).

Crystal Alberts, “Piecing together the Puzzle: The Manuscripts of JM’s Lost in Translation.” North Dakota Quarterly 79.1 (Winter 2012): 79-88.

Emily Apter, “Translation with No Original: Scandals of Textual Reproduction,” in Nation, Language, and the Ethics of Translation, eds. Sandra Wood Bermann and Michael Wood (Princeton: Princeton UP, 2005).

James Baird, “James Merrill’s Sound of Feeling: Language and Music,” Southwest Review 74.3 (1989): 361-377.

Mark Bauer, “Between: Lives: James Merrill Reading Yeats’s Prose,” Contemporary Literature 43.1 (2002): 85-119

——, This Composite Voice: The Role of W.B. Yeats in James Merrill’s Poetry (New York: Routledge, 2003).

David Ben-Merre, “O Sing the Marbles: Typos, Losing, and the Portable Cultural Histories of James Merrill,” Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory 69.1 (2013): 119-149.

James Berger, “The Necessary Angel and A Different Person: Defending the Life of
Poetry,” Wallace Stevens Journal 25.1 (2001) 64-73.

Meredith Bergmann, “‘Losing the Marbles’: Merrill and Sophrosyne,” Contemporary Poetry Review, November 2013,

Lorna Blake, “The Unstiflement of the Story: James Merrill’s ‘The Broken Home,’” Contemporary Poetry Review, November 2013,

Mutlu Konuk Blasing, “Rethinking Models of Literary Change: The Case of James Merrill,” American Literary History 2.2 (1990): 299-317.

——, Politics and Form in Postmodern Poetry: Bishop, O’Hara, Merrill, and Ashbery (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

James Merrill, ed. Harold Bloom (New York: Chelsea, 1985).

Thomas Brennan, “James Merrill’s ‘The Friend of the Fourth Decade,’” Contemporary Poetry Review, November 2013,

Paul Breslin, “Closest Necessities: James Merrill’s Poetics of Reticence,” Poetry 179.6 (2002): 343-352.

C.A. Buckley, “Quantum Physics and the Ouija-Board: James Merrill’s Holistic World View,” Mosaic 26.2 (1993): 39-61.

Stephen Burt, “Becoming Literature: On James Merrill’s Poetry of Autobiography and Social Comedy,” Boston Review 26.3-4 (2001): 34-7.

Luke Carson, “James Merrill’s Manners and Elizabeth Bishop’s Dismay,” Twentieth-Century Literature 50.2 (2004): 167-91.

Christopher K. Coffman, “‘Swann’s Way. Basic Training’: Interpretation in James Merrill’s Late Collections and A la recherche du temps perdu,” Comparative Literature 61.4 (2009): 400-415.

Christopher Corl, “Regaining the Depths: James Merrill’s ‘Pearl,’” Contemporary Poetry Review, November 2013,

Catherine A. Davies, Whitman’s Queer Children: America’s Homosexual Epics (New York: Continuum, 2012).

Charles Doersch, “James Merrill’s Geode Sonnet: Crystal Queer,” Contemporary Poetry Review, November 2013,

Frederick M. Dolan, Allegories of America: Narratives, Metaphysics, Politics (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994).

Jeffery Donaldson, “Going Down in History: Richard Howard’s ‘Untitled Subjects’ and James Merrill’s The Changing Light at Sandover,” Salmagundi 76-77 (1987): 175-202.

——, “The Company Poets Keep: Allusion, Echo, and the Question of Who is Listening in W.H. Auden and James Merrill,” Contemporary Literature 38.2 (1997): 307-24.

George Dowling, “James Merrill Special Issue: An Introduction,” Contemporary Poetry Review, November 2013,

Gregory Dowling, “‘A Window Fiery-Mild’: The Role of Venice in ‘The Book of Ephraim,’” Contemporary Poetry Review, November 2013,

Moira Egan, “Techne in Textiles: Merrill’s ‘Investiture at Cecconi’s,’” Contemporary Poetry Review, November 2013,

Frank B. Farrell, “James Merrill and the Making of Literature,” Why Does Literature Matter? (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004)

Deborah Forbes, “Agnostic Sincerity: The Poet as Observer in the Work of Keats, Bishop, and Merrill,” Sincerity’s Shadow: Self-Consciousness in British Romantic and Mid-Twentieth-Century American Poetry (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004).

John Foy, “Satire & Dysfunction: James Merrill’s ‘Family Week at Oracle Ranch,’” Contemporary Poetry Review, November 2013,

John Gery, “The Ambiguous Paradise in Merrill’s The Changing Light at Sandover,” in Nuclear Annihilation and Contemporary American Poetry (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996).

Jennifer Green-Lewis and Margaret Soltan, Teaching Beauty in DeLillo, Woolf, and Merrill (Basingstoke; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).

Allan Gurganus, “James Merrill,” Loss within Loss: Artists in the Age of AIDS, ed. Edmund White (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2001).

Piotr Gwiazda, “Merrill’s ‘The Emerald,’” The Explicator 58.3 (2000): 164.

——, “Views from the Rosebrick Manor: Poetic Authority in James Merrill’s The Changing Light at Sandover,” Texas Studies in Literature and Language 43.4 (2001): 418-39.

——, James Merrill and W.H. Auden: Homosexuality and Poetic Influence (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).

Rachel Hadas, “’We both knew this place’: Reflections on the Art of James Merrill,” The Kenyon Review 19.1 (1997): 134-44.

——, “James Merrill’s Early Work: A Revaluation,” The Kenyon Review 20.2 (1998): 177-84.

——, “From Stage Set to Heirloom: Greece in the Work of James Merrill,” Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 6.3 (1999): 1-19.

——, Merrill, Cavafy, Poems, and Dreams (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000).

James Ingram Merrill: A Descriptive Bibliography, eds. Jack Hagstrom and Bill Morgan (Oak Knoll Press, 2009).

Robert Hahn, “Not So Distant Vistas: Some Versions of the Mediterranean in American
Poetry,” Poetry International 6 (2002): 150-8.

Nick Halpern, Everyday and Prophetic: The Poetry of Lowell, Ammons, Merrill, and Rich (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2003).

Langdon Hammer, Masks of the Poet: James Merrill and Kimon Friar [essay and exhibition catalogue], American College of Greece, Library Series 17, Athens, 2003.

——, “Merrill and Stevens,” Wallace Stevens Journal 28.2 (Fall 2004): 295-302.

——, “Life into art: James Merrill’s ‘16.ix.65.’” Literary Imagination 7:3 (2005): 278-85.

——, “James Merrill’s Double Life: ‘The Thousand and Second Night.’” Poetica: An International Journal of Linguistic-Literary Studies 64 (2005): 69-85.

——, “James Merrill’s Water Street (1951-61),” Parnassus: Poetry in Review 32.1-2 (2011): 336-86.

John Hollander, The Work of Poetry (New York: Columbia UP, 1997).

Richard Howard, “Self-Portraits,” Raritan 14.2 (1994): 135-46.

Claudia Ingram, “‘Fission and Fusion Both Liberate Energy’: James Merrill, Jorie Graham, and the Metaphoric Imagination,” Twentieth-Century Literature 51.2 (Summer 2005): 142-78.

Kathryn Jacobs, “How Not to Shed Tears, and What to Do Instead: James Merrill,” Midwest Quarterly 42.3 (2001): 334-45.

Kamran Javadizadeh, “Elizabeth Bishop’s Closet Drama,” Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory 67.3 (Autumn 2011): 119-50.

Davis Johnston, Precipitations: Contemporary American Poetry as Occult Practice (Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 2002).

Devin. Johnston, “Resistance to the Message: James Merrill’s Occult Epic,” Contemporary Literature 41.1 (2000): 87-116.

Walter Kalaidjian, Languages of Liberation: The Social Text in Contemporary American Poetry (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989).

Mary Karr, “Against Decoration,” Parnassus: Poetry in Review 16.2 (1991: 277-300).

Frank J. Kearful, “’The child awake and wearied of’: James Merrill and the Art of the Villanelle,” Zum Begriff der Imagination in Dichung and Dichtungstheorie (Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 1998): 271-87.

Edmund Keeley, “Cavafy and His Heirs in America,” Iowa Review 32.3 (2002): 26-39.

Elif Kelebek, “‘Dissolved by Rhetoric’: James Merrill’s Istanbul and the Pursuit of Authenticity,” Interactions: Ege Journal of British and American Studies 22.1-2 (2013): 69-80.

Ann Keniston, “Ghostly Projections: James Merrill’s The Changing Light at Sandover,” Overheard Voices: Address and Subjectivity in Postmodern American Poetry (New York: Routledge, 2006).

Adam Kirsch, The Modern Element: Essays on Contemporary Poetry (New York: Norton, 2008).

Philip Kuberski, “The Metaphysics of Postmodern Death: Mailer’s ‘Ancient Evenings’ and Merrill’s The Changing Light at Sandover,” English Literary History 56.1(1989): 229-254.

Ross Labrie, James Merrill (Boston: Twayne, 1982).

D.S. Lawson, “James Merrill (1926-),” Contemporary Gay American Novelists: A Bio-
Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook, ed. Emmanuel S. Nelson and Gregory W. Bredbeck (Westport: Greenwood, 1993).

James Merrill: Essays in Criticism, eds. David Lehman and Charles Berger (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983).

April Linder, “James Merrill: ‘After Greece,’” Contemporary Poetry Review, November 2013,

Joseph F. Loewenstein, “The Poets’s Poet’s Poet: James Merrill’s Spenser Lectures,” Spenser Studies: A Renaissance Poetry Annual 28 (2013): 65-82.

Sara Lundquist, “An Aesthetics of Enclosure: James Merrill’s Inner Rooms,” English Studies in Canada 31:1 (2005): 27-49.

D.L. Macdonald, “Merrill and Freud: The Psychopathology of Eternal Life,” Mosaic 19.4 (1986): 159-72.

Andrea Mariani, “Orbits of Power: Rings in James Merrill’s Poetry,” in Exchanging Clothes: Habits of Being 2, ed. Cristina Giorcelli and Paula Rabinowitz (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012), 58-77.

J. Marit MacArthur, “One World? The Poetics of Passenger Flight and the Perception of the Global,” PMLA 127.2 (2012): 264-82.

Christopher J. Macgowan, “James Merrill,” Twentieth-Century American Poetry (Maldon, MA : Blackwell Pub., 2004).

Robin Magowan, “James Merrill’s The Seraglio,” North Dakota Quarterly 76.3 (2009): 7-13.

Andrea Mariani, “James Merrill: A Postmodern Poet? Yes & No (With a New Poem by James Merrill),” RSA Journal: Rivista di Studi-Nord Americani 4 (1993): 31-56.

——, “‘Orbits of Power’: Gli anelli in James Merrill,” Abito e Identità: Ricerche di storia letteraria e culturale, ed. Cristina Giorcelli (Palma, Spain: Ila Palma, 2006).

Timothy Materer, “Death and Alchemical Transformation in James Merrill’s The Changing Light at Sandover,” Contemporary Literature 29.1 (1988): 82-114.

——, “The Error of His Ways: James Merrill and the Fall into Myth,” American Poetry 7.3 (1990): 64-86.

——, Modernist Alchemy: Poetry and the Occult (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995).

——, James Merrill’s Apocalypse (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000).

——, “Stevens as King of the Ghosts: James Merrill and Wallace Stevens,” Wallace Stevens Journal 25.1 (2001): 74-84.

——, “Confession and Autobiography in James Merrill’s Early Poetry,” Twentieth-Century Literature 48.2 (2002): 150-73.

——, “Mirrored Lives: Elizabeth Bishop and James Merrill,” Twentieth-Century Literature 51.2 (Summer 2005): 179-205.

——, “James Merrill’s Polyphonic Muse,” Contemporary Literature 47:2 (Summer 2006): 207-35.

——, “James Merrill’s Late Poetry: AIDS and the ‘Stripping Process,’” Arizona Quarterly. 64.2 (Summer 2008): 123-45.

Susan McCabe, “Blue Sky Laws and Poetic Inequivalence: Wallace Stevens and James Merrill,” Wallace Stevens Journal 25.1 (2001): 52-63.

J.D. McClatchy, “Monsters Wrapped in Silk: James Merrill’s Country of a Thousand Years of Peace,” Contemporary Poetry: A Journal of Criticism 4.4 (1982): 1-30.

——, “Braving the Elements,” Twenty Questions (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998): 155-69.

——, “James Merrill’s Inner Room,” Raritan: A Quarterly Review 19.1 (1999): 1-21.

——, “Two Deaths, Two Lives,” Loss within Loss: Artists in the Age of AIDS, ed. Edmund White (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2001).

James McCourt, “Two Jims,” Queer Street: Rise and Fall of an American Culture, 1947-1984: Excursions in the Mind of the Life (New York: W.W. Norton, 2004).

Brian McHale, “Angels in America: James Merrill’s The Changing Light at Sandover,” The Obligation Toward the Difficult Whole: Postmodernist Long Poems (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2004).

Jeffrey Mehlman, “Merrill’s Valéry: An Erotics of Translatio,” Rethinking Translation: Discourse, Subjectivity, Ideology, ed. Lawrence Venuti (London: Routledge, 1992).

Steven Meyer, Helen Vendler, Rachel Hadas, Richard Kenney, and Stephen Yenser, “James Merrill: A Life in Writing,” Southwest Review 80.2-3 (1995): 159-85.

Judith Moffett, “’I Have Received from Whom I Do Not Know / These Letters. Show Me, Light, If They Make Sense,’” Shenandoah 31.2 (1980): 35-74.

——, “Sound Without Sense; Willful Obscurity in Poetry,” New England Review 3.2 (Winter 1980): 294-312.

——, James Merrill: An Introduction to the Poetry (New York: Columbia University Press, 1984).

——, “Days of 1973: A Week in Athens,” Notre Dame Review (Summer/Fall 2012),

Michael Moon, “The Black Swan: Poetry, Punishment, and the Sadomasochism of Everyday Life, or, Tradition and the Individual Talent,” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 17.4 (2011): 487-96.

Fred Moramarco, “Stevens, Rich, and Merrill: An Introduction,” Wallace Stevens Journal 25.1 (Spring 2001): 3-6.

Peter Nickowitz, Rhetoric and Sexuality: The Poetry of Hart Crane, Elizabeth Bishop, and James Merrill (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006).

Siobhan Phillips, The Poetics of the Everyday: Creative Repetition in Modern American Verse (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010).

Robert Polito, A Guide to James Merrill’s The Changing Light at Sandover (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994).

Justin Quinn, “Europe in the Work of Anthony Hecht and James Merrill,” Irish Journal of American Studies 5 (1996): 107-18.

Spencer Reece, “Remembering James Merrill,” Boulevard 22.2-3 (Spring 2007): 1-31.

Guy Rotella, “James Merrill’s Poetry of Convalescence,” Contemporary Literature 36.1 (1995): 35-57.

——, ed. Critical Essays on James Merrill (New York: G.K. Hall, 1996).

——, Castings: Monuments and Monumentality in Poems by Elizabeth Bishop, Robert Lowell, James Merrill, Derek Walcott, and Seamus Heaney (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2004).

Albert Rothenberg, The Emerging Goddess: The Creative Process in Art, Science and Other Fields (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979).

Stephen Sandy, “Salt of the Sky: James Merrill’s Poetry,” Harvard Review 21 (2001): 69-78.

Reena Sastri, “A Scattering of Salts: Merrill’s Temporal Innocence,” Twentieth-Century Literature 50.3 (Fall 2004): 239-67.

——, James Merrill: Knowing Innocence (New York: Routledge, 2007).

Jason Schneiderman, “Notes on Not Writing: Revisiting The Changing Light at Sandover,” American Poetry Review 38.5 (Sept/Oct 2009): 15-21.

Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, “The 1001 Seances,” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 17.4 (2011): 457-68.

H.A. Sedgwick, “The 1001 Seances,” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 17.4 (2011): 449-55.

Eric Murphy Selinger, “James Merrill’s Masks of Eros, Masques of Love,” Contemporary Literature 35.1 (1994): 30-65.

Vernon Shetley, After the Death of Poetry: Poetry and Audience in Contemporary America (Durham: Duke University Press, 1993).

John Shoptaw, “James Merrill and John Ashbery,” The Columbia History of American Poetry, ed. Jay Parini and Brett C. Millier (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993).

Evans Lansing Smith, “The Hermetic Tradition in James Merrill’s The Changing Light at Sandover,” Cauda Pavonis: Studies in Hermeticism 15.1 (1996): 7-12.

——, “Merrill’s The Changing Light at Sandover,” The Explicator 55.1 (1996): 51-53.

——, “James Merrill,” in Figuring Poesis: A Mythical Geometry of Postmodernism (New York: Peter Lang, 1997).

——, “Merrill’s ‘Lost in Translation,’” The Explicator 59.3 (2001): 156-59.

——, James Merrill, Postmodern Magus: Myth and Poetics (Iowa City: U of Iowa Press, 2008).

Monroe K. Spears, “The Prose of Two Poets: Anthony Hecht and James Merrill,” in Countries of the Mind : Literary Explorations (Columbia : University of Missouri Press, 1992).

Helen Sword, “James Merrill, Sylvia Plath, and the Poetics of Ouija,” American Literature 66.3 (1994): 553-72.

——, Ghost Writing Modernism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002).

Ruth Thompson, “Merrill’s ‘Bronze,’” The Explicator 47.1 (1988): 48-50.

D.H. Tracy, “Bad Ideas,” Poetry 189.2 (Nov. 2006): 135-46.

Rachel Trousdale, “Transformations of Memory: Marcel Proust, Vladimir Nabokov, and James Merrill,” in Nabokov’s World, Volume 2 : Reading Nabokov, ed. Jane Grayson (New York: Palgrave, 2002).

Helen Vendler, “Losing the Marbles: James Merrill on Greece,” Imagination and Logos: Essays on C. P. Cavafy, ed. Panagiotis Roilos (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010), 51-70.

——, Last Looks, Last Books: Stevens, Plath, Lowell, Bishop, Merrill (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010).

Robert Von Hallberg, “James Merrill: ‘Revealing by Obscuring,’” Contemporary Literature 21 (1980): 549-71.

Aidan Wasley, The Age of Auden: Postwar Poetry and the American Scene (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010).

Arnold Weinstein, “The Break-Up of the City and the Break-Down of Narrative: Baudelaire’s ‘Le Cygne’ and James Merrill’s ‘Urban Convalescence,’” in City Images: Perspectives from Literature, Philosophy and Film, ed. Mary Ann Caws (New York: Gordon & Breach, 1991).

Jeff Westover, “Eros and Psyche: The View ‘From the Cupola,’” Classical and Modern Literature: A Quarterly 18.4 (1998): 303-28.

Lesley Wheeler, Voicing American Poetry: Sound and Performance from the 1920s to the Present (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008).

Edmund White, “On James Merrill,” American Poetry Review 8.5 (1979): 9-11.

——, “The Inverted Type: Homosexuality as a Theme in James Merrill’s Prophetic Books,” Literary Visions of Homosexuality, ed. Stuart Kellogg (New York: Haworth, 1983): 47-52.

Stephen Yenser, “‘Spontaneity’: Herbert’s Irruption in the Poetry of Elizabeth Bishop and James Merrill,” in George Herbert’s Travels: International Print and Cultural Legacies, ed. Christopher Hodgkins (Newark: Delaware UP, 2011): 191-205.

——, The Consuming Myth: The Work of James Merrill (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987).

Christopher Yu, “Imbued with Otherness: Merrill’s Mock-Epics of Desire,” Nothing to Admire: The Politics of Poetic Satire from Dryden to Merrill (New York : Oxford University Press, 2003).

Lee Zimmerman, “Against Apocalypse: Politics and James Merrill’s The Changing Light at Sandover,” Contemporary Literature 30.3 (1989): 370-386.

PART TWO: Documents referred to in James Merrill: Life and Art

Abbreviations: JM (James Merrill); Houghton (Houghton Rare Book Library, Harvard University); WUSTL (Special Collections, Olin Library, Washington University Library in St. Louis); Yale (Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University)

Primary Sources by date

JM, Childhood Photo Album, c. 1930-35 (Yale).

Program for “the Jimmy Merrill Marionettes” (WUSTL).

JM, documents from childhood, c. 1934-37 (WUSTL).

JM, “Books that Belong in My Library,” 1935 (WUSTL).

JM, “My Autobiography,” November 7, 1935, schoolbooks (WUSTL).

JM, “Supplementary Reading,” 1935 (WUSTL).

JM, “A Ballad,” 1935 (WUSTL).

JM, Schoolbooks, November 1936 (WUSTL).

JM, Form I, Class of 1943 report, 1939 (WUSTL).

JM, Jim’s Book: A Collection of Poems and Short Stories (New York, Private, 1942).

JM, “The Lit,” Olla Podrida, 1943.

JM, review of ‘The Death of the Moth,’ and Other Writings by Virginia Woolf, The Lawrence 63 (January 22, 1943) 12: 2.

JM, “Nero Dines in the Gardens of the Golden House,” Lawrenceville Literary Magazine, 48 (February 1943) 3: 13.

JM, “Death-Masks,” The Lit: Lawrenceville Literary Magazine, 48.3 (February 1943): 3-4.

JM, “Words are Birds,” The Lit: Lawrenceville Literary Magazine 48.4 (June 1943): 5-8.

JM, “The Hearings,” journal, May 25, 1954 (WUSTL).

JM, “Three Sketches for Europa,” Semi-Colon 1.5 (1955): 2.

JM, “For a Second Marriage” and “Salome,” Poetry 87 (February 1956): 295.

JM, journal (Jnl 3), “R[obert]. M[orse].’s Sayings,” c. 1957 (WUSTL).

JM, Poetry Reading, 5 March 1956 (Houghton).

JM, worksheet for “The Broken Home” (WUSTL).

JM, draft of “The Broken Home,” in letter to RM, October 12, 1965 (WUSTL).

JM, calendar for March 5-9, uncatalogued journal, 1967-68 (WUSTL).

JM, drafts for a poem about the “Greek crisis,” journal, 1967-68 (Yale).

JM, draft page of “Matinees,” journal, 1967-68 (Yale).

JM, draft of “In Nine Sleep Valley,” in a letter to David Kalstone, July 24, 1968 (WUSTL).

JM, worksheets for “Mornings in a New House” [“My Birthday 1965” and “3.x.68”] (WUSTL).

JM, worksheet for “Lost in Translation” (WUSTL).

JM, worksheet for The Book of Ephraim, enclosed in letter to David Jackson, January 19, 1973 (WUSTL).

JM, Personal Chronology (WUSTL).

JM, “Gadfly Rondeaux / for DJ,” enclosed in letter to Stephen Yenser, February 12, 1983 (Yale).

JM’s copy, with marginalia, of Henry M. Tyler, Selections from the Greek Lyric Poets with a Historical Introduction and Explanatory Notes, rev. ed., Boston: Ginn & Co., 1906 (Yale).

JM, “After Empires,” sent to John Hollander, January 25, 1990 (Yale).

JM, draft page from A Different Person, enclosure to J.D. McClatchy, letter, July 18, 1991 (Yale).

JM, “Elizabeth, you should have seen me . . .,” draft poem, c. 1992 (WUSTL).

Biographical Context:

Merrill Family Genealogy (Robin Magowan).

Testimony by Josephine Skraback, Court Transcript, State of New York (WUSTL).

“C. E. Merrill Marries,” New York Times (February 21, 1925).

“Charles E. Merrill Sails for Europe,” New York Times (March 28, 1925): 21.

“Safeway stock out tomorrow,” Los Angeles Times (November 14, 1926): 17.

“Noted Plantation is Sold,” New York Times (October 21, 1927): 41.

“Miss Doris Merrill Wed to R. A. Magowan in St. Andrew’s Dune Church at Southampton,” New York Times, June 16, 1935.

“Public Notices,” New York Herald Tribune (October 9, 1937).

“Mrs. Merrill Guest of Mrs. Livingston,” New York World-Telegram (July 18, 1938).

“Mrs. Merrill Sheds Broker; Gets Son, Cash,” The News (February 23, 1939).

“Friendly Divorce Parts Merrills,” Daily Mirror (February 23, 1939).

“Who’s Who and What’s What in Society,” New York Journal and American (February 26, 1939).

W. H. Scott, House Master’s Report, Nov. 24, 1939 (WUSTL).

“Scholarship Up; Sixteen Boys Earn Honors,” Lawrenceville Recorder 14 (November 22, 1939): 1.

February Subject Report 1940, Lawrenceville School (WUSTL).

William Reiter, House Master’s Report, March 1941 (WUSTL).

“Mrs. Merrill is Wed to W. L. Plummer; U.S.A.F.R. Officer,” New York Herald Tribune, Oct. 1, 1950.

Letter from the U. S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, to the Ingram Merrill Foundation, July 9, 1955 (WUSTL).

Elizabeth M. Fowler, “Personality: ‘We, the People’s’ Boss Now 70,” New York Times (May 20, 1956).

Guest book 107 Water Street, April 13-15, 1962, Journal 12 (WUSTL).

Lawrenceville Class of 1943 25th Class Reunion Notes, 1968.

Douglas Robinson, “Townhouse Razed By Blast and Fire; Man’s Body Found,” New York Times (March 7, 1970), 1.

Douglas Robinson, “Parents of Miss Wilkerson Bid Her Clarify Bomb Toll,” New York Times (March 12, 1970), 1.

Linda Charlton, “Neighbor Recalls 2 ‘Dazed’ Young Women,” New York Times (March 12, 1970), 34.

Elizabeth Bishop, “Letters,” Yale Review, 37-38; Bishop to Merrill, letter, May 5, 1970.

John Neary, “The Two Girls from No. 18,” Life 69 (March 27, 1970) 11: 26-29.

Thomas Powers, Diana: The Making of a Terrorist (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971).

Peggy D. Bradford, “Portraits Extraordinaire,” Ponte Vedra Recorder (November 10, 1972).

Erik Eckholm, “City, in Shift, to Make Blood Test for AIDS Virus More Widely Available,” New York Times (December 23, 1985).

Lawrence Jasper, A Critical History of the Artists’ Theater (University of Kansas, Theatre and Media Arts, 1986).

Program, “A Memorial Tribute to David Kalstone,” September 20, 1986, New York Public Library (privately printed).

Brenda S. Gross, “Poets and Painters in the Theatre: A Critical Study of the New York Artists Theatre,” PhD. Diss., Graduate Faculty in Theatre, City University of New York (1989).

Eleanor Blau, “Grace Zaring Stone, a Novelist under Two Names, Dies at 100,” New York Times (October 1, 1991).

Norman Austin, “James Merrill: His Last Days,” typescript 1995 (Austin).

Robert B. Mackay, Anthony Baker, and Carol Traynor, eds., Long Island Country Houses and their Architects, 1860-1940 (New York, 1997).

Stratis Haviaras, “Millennial Afterlives: A Retrospect,” Fourth Annual Kimon Friar Lecture 1997 (The American College of Greece, Athens, 1997).

Edmund White, The Farewell Symphony (New York: Vintage, 1997).

Edwin J. Perkins, Wall Street to Main Street: Charles Merrill and Middle-Class Investors (Cambridge UP 1999).

Mel Gussow, “The House on West 11th Street,” New York Times (March 5, 2000), Sec. 14, 1.

Betty Plummer Potts, quoted in “Hellen Plummer, 102, Connoisseur of the Arts,” under “Obituaries,” Atlanta Journal and Constitution (December 23, 2000), 10D.

Kathleen Norris, The Virgin of Bennington (New York: Riverhead, 2001).

Richard Howard, “Close Encounters of Another Kind,” Talking Cures (New York: Turtle Point Press, 2002), 7-9.

“The Scholar and the Poet,” Meg Sullivan, UCLA Magazine (Fall 2002), 34.

Susan Braudy, Family Circle: The Boudins and the Aristocracy of the Left (New York: Knopf, 2003).

Andrew O’Hehir, “When Terrorism was Cool,”, June 7, 2003.

Poetry in Person: Twenty-Five Years of Conversation with America’s Poets, ed. Alexander Neubauer (New York: Knopf, 2009).

Robert Bagg, “Paparrazo on Parnassus,” (accessed March, 2009).

Marglit Fox, “Eleanor Perényi, Writer and Gardener, Dies at 91,” New York Times (May 6, 2009).

Vincent P. Dole, “George Constantin Cotzias,” National Academies Press, (accessed 8/23/10)

Peter Hooten, (accessed March 24, 2012).

“School History,” (accessed September 2, 2013).

Writing by Friends and Family:

Frederick Buechner, The Sacred Journey (Harper & Row San Francisco, 1982).

——, The Eyes of the Heart: A Memoir of the Lost and Found (Harper San Francisco: 2000).

——, “Lawrenceville Fiftieth Reunion” [poem], The Yellow Leaves: A Miscellany (Louisville KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2008), 120-23.

David Jackson, “Kritik K. and the Chateau (A Parable in Patchwork),” Semi-Colon 1.5 (1955): 3.

——, “The English Gardens,” Partisan Review 28.2 (March-April 1961): 201-44.

——, David Jackson: Scenes from His Life (New York: Nadja, 1994), np.

Hans Lodeizen, “Evening at the Merrills” and “Jim I would like to know,” trans. Peter Nijmeijer, in Dutch Interior: Postwar Poetry of the Netherlands and Flanders, eds. James S. Holmes and William Jay Smith (New York: Columbia UP, 1984), 26.

Alison Lurie, V. R. Lang: A Memoir (Privately printed, Munich, 1959).

——, “On James Merrill (1926-95),” New York Review of Books (March 23, 1995).

——, Familiar Spirits: A Memoir of James Merrill and David Jackson (New York: Viking, 2001).

Robin Magowan, “Sailor at Perema,” Lilac Cigarette in a Wish Cathedral (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1998).

Robin Magowan, Memoirs of a Minotaur: From Merrill Lynch to Patty Hearst to Poetry (Ashland: Story Line Press, 1999).

Stephen Magowan, Stephen Magowan: A Life in Letters, selected and introduced by Robin Magowan (Wallflower Press, nd).

Charles Merrill, The Checkbook: The Politics and Ethics of Foundation Philanthropy (Boston: Oegleschlager, Gunn & Hain, 1986).

Hellen Ingram Merrill, “Articles Moved from The Orchard,” fall 1937 (WUSTL).

Hellen Ingram Plummer, Hellen’s Book (New York: Magowan Family Foundation, 1991).

Robert Morse, The Two Persephones (New York: Creative Age Press, 1942).

Donald Richie, “Sada Abe,” Japanese Portraits (Tokyo, 1987; Tuttle ed. 2005), 33–35.

Bernard de Zogheb, Le Sorelle Bronte, foreword by James Merrill (New York: Tibor de Nagy Editions, 1963).

Reviews of JM’s Work:

W. L. Frederici, “Lit Review,” The Lawrence (January 15, 1943).

Rolfe Humphries, “Verse Chronicles” (review of First Poems), The Nation 172.6 (February 10, 1951): 138-39.

Louise Bogan, “Verse” (review of First Poems), The New Yorker 27.17 (June 9, 1951): 109-110.

Brooks Atkinson, “Closet Drama” (review of “The Immortal Husband”), New York Times (February 15, 1955): 32.

Richard Hayes, “The Stage: ‘The Immortal Husband’” (Review of “The Immortal Husband”), Commonweal 61:24 (March, 1955): 630.

David L. Stevenson, “Four View of Love: New Fiction” (review of The Seraglio), The Nation 184.15 (April 13, 1957): 329.

Richard Sullivan, “Tycoon’s Harem” (review of The Seraglio), New York Times (April 21, 1957).

Charles Rollo, “Reader’s Choice” (review of The Seraglio), The Atlantic 199.5 (May 1957): 86-87.

Marius Bewley, “Poetry Chronicle” (review of The Country of a Thousand Years of Peace), Partisan Review 26.2 (Spring 1959): 326.

James Dickey, “The Human Power” (review of The Country of a Thousand Years of Peace), Sewanee Review 67.3 (1959): 497.

X. J. Kennedy, “Four Fashions in Contemporary Verse” (review of Water Street), New York Times Book Review (November 25, 1962): 42.

Peter Davison, “New Poetry” (review of Water Street), The Atlantic Monthly, 212.6 (December 1963): 82-85.

Gene Baro, “Quintet” (review of Nights and Days), New York Times Book Review (June 26, 1966): 10-14.

Richard Howard, “Illusion Wedded to Simple Need” (review of Nights and Days), Poetry 108.5 (August 1966): 329-335; reprinted in Alone with America, enlarged edition (New York: Scribners, 1980).

John Hollander, “Books in Brief” (review of The Fire Screen), Harper’s Monthly 239.1433 (October 1969): 136.

“A World West of Yale,” editorial, The New York Times (January 16, 1973).

Richard Howard, letter to the editor of the New York Times (January 19, 1973).

Richard Pevear, “Poetry Chronicle” (review of Braving the Elements), The Hudson Review 26.1 (Spring 1973): 203.

Richard Sáez, “James Merrill’s Oedipal Fire,” Parnassus: Poetry in Review 3.1 (Fall/Winter 1974): 159-84.

Helen Vendler, “News from the Muse” (review of Divine Comedies), New York Review of Books 23.4 (March 18, 1976): 29-31.

Louis Simpson, “Divine Comedies” (review of Divine Comedies), New York Times (March 21, 1976): 6-7.

Clara Clairborne Park, “Where The Waste Land Ends,” The Nation 230:17 (May 3, 1980): 532-535; reprinted in Robert Polito, A Guide to James Merrill’s The Changing Light at Sandover (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994).

Denis Donaghue, “What a Ouiji Board Said” (review of Scripts for the Pageant), New York Times Book Review (June 15, 1980): 11, 20; reprinted in Robert Polito, A Guide to James Merrill’s The Changing Light at Sandover (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994).

Jack Miles, “Poet James Merrill to Speak in ‘Voices’” (on “Voices from Sandover”), Los Angeles Times (April 1, 1989).

John Simon, “Robed in Images: The Memoirs of James Merrill” (review of A Different Person), New Criterion 12.1 (September 1993): 75-80.

Brigitte Weeks, “How James Merrill Came of Age” (review of A Different Person), New York Times Book Review (December 12, 1993): 30.

Extended Context:
André Aciman, Out of Egypt: A Memoir (New York: Farrar Straus, Giroux, 1994).

AIDS Activity Center For Infectious Diseases Centers For Disease Control, ‘Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) weekly surveillance report- United States’, December 22, 1983.

Lawrence K. Altman, “Recollections on the Age of AIDS,” New York Times (July 3, 2001).

John Ashbery, Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror (New York: Viking, 1975).

W. H. Auden and Chester Kallman, The Rake’s Progress, in The Complete Works of W. H. Auden: Libretti and Other Dramatic Writings, 1939-1973, ed. Edward Mendelson (Princeton: Princeton UP: 1993).

W.H. Auden, A Certain World: A Commonplace Book (annotated personal anthology), Viking, 1970.

——, Collected Poems, ed. Edward Mendelson (New York: Random House, 1976).

Christian Ayoub Sinano, Artagal (Paris: Buchet/Chastel, 1958).

Stephen Barrett, M.D., “HCG Worthless as Weight-Loss Aid,” Diet-Scam Watch, (consulted May 21, 2008).

Matsuo Bashō, The Narrow Road to the Deep North and Other Travel Sketches, introduction and translation by Nobuyuki Yuasa (London: Penguin, 1966).

BBC Home: On This Day: 1950-2005, “Athens Attack Leaves Three Dead,” (accessed December 2009).

John Berendt, The City of Fallen Angels (New York: Penguin, 2006).

Philip G. Bergem, The Family and Residences of Arthur Conan Doyle (privately printed, 2001).

Marius Bewley, The Complex Fate: Hawthorne, Henry James, and Some Other American Writers (New York: Grove Press, 1954).

Elizabeth Bishop, Poems (New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 2011).

Harold Bloom, The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973).

Jorge Luis Borges, “The Meeting in a Dream,” Other Inquisitions 1937-1952, trans. Ruth Simmons (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1952).

William F. Buckley, Jr., “Crucial Steps in Combating the Aids Epidemic; Identify All the Carriers,” New York Times, March 18, 1986.

“The Basic Service of Art,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 12.1 (January 1918): 2.

Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces (New York: Pantheon, 1949).

Humphrey Carpenter, W. H. Auden: A Biography (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981).

Richard Clogg, A Short History of Modern Greece (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1979; 2nd d., 1986).

Richard Davenport-Hines, Auden (London: Heinemann, 1995).

Tim Dean, “The Psychoanalysis of AIDS,” October 63 (1993): 83-116.

Maya Deren, Divine Horsemen: Living Gods of Haiti (New York: Vanguard, 1953).

Maya Deren and Alexander Hammid, Meshes of the Afternoon (1943), B&W.

Anne Edwards, Callas: Her Life, Her Loves, Her Music (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2001).

Irving Ehrenpreis, “The Age of Lowell,” in Thomas Parkinson, Robert Lowell: A Collection of Critical Essays (New York: Prentice Hall, 1968).

T.S. Eliot, Four Quartets (New York: Harcourt, 1943).

Dorothy J. Farnan, Auden in Love: The Intimate Story of a Lifelong Affair (New York: New American Library, 1984).

Anne Finch, “To the Nightingale,” The ‘Other’ Eighteenth-Century: English Women of Letters, eds. Robert W. Uphaus and Gretchen M. Foster (East Lansing MI: Colleague Press, 1991), 177.

Filippo Fois, La Fenice Theatre (Venice: Marsilio Editori, 2005).

Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams, in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volumes IV and V (London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-analysis, 1953).

Northrop Frye, Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957).
——, The Secular Scripture: A Study of the Structure of Romance (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1978).

Diana Fuss, The Sense of an Interior: Four Writers and the Rooms that Shaped Them (London: Routledge, 2004).

Stephen Gillers, “A Tendency to Deprave and Corrupt: The Transformation of US Obscenity Law from Hicklin to Ulysses II,” Washington University Law Review 85.2 (2007): 287

Lawrence Gilman, review of Die Walküre performed at the Metropolitan Opera January 21, 1938, Herald Tribune (

Harry Gilroy, “Malamud Asserts Novel Should Stress a Theme,” New York Times (March 9, 1967): 42.

James Gollin, Pied Piper: The Many Lives of Noah Greenberg, Lives in Music Series No. 4 (Hillsdale NY: Pendragon Press, 2001).

Kenneth Gross, “Love Translated: The Little Players,” Yale Review 94.1 (2006): 84.

Hala Halim, “Against the Dying of the Light,” Al-Ahram Weekly, August 26-September 1, 1999 (

Robert von Hallberg, American Poetry and Culture, 1945-1980 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985).

John Hollander, Types of Shape (New York: Atheneum, 1969; expanded edition, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991).

——, Reflections on Espionage (New York: Atheneum, 1976).

Richard Howard, Untitled Subjects (New York: Atheneum, 1969).

S. Hunt, Ouija: The Most Dangerous Game (New York: Harper, 1992).

William James, “Automatic Writing,” Proceedings of the American Society for Psychical Research 1 (1889).

C.G. Jung, Answer to Job, trans. R.F.C. Hull, in the Collected Works of C.G. Jung, vol. 11(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010).

Stanley Karnow, Vietnam: A History (New York: Penguin, 1983; rev. ed., 1997).

Nikos Kazantzakis, The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel, trans. Kimon Friar (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1958).

Edmund Keeley, Inventing Paradise: The Greek Journey 1937-47 (New York: FSG, 1999).

Frances Kiernan, Seeing Mary Plain: A Life of Mary McCarthy (New York: Norton, 2000).

James Kraft, Who is Witter Bynner? A Biography (Alubquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995).

John Michell, The View Over Atlantis (New York: Ballantine Books, 1977).

Robert Morse, The Two Persephones (New York: Creative Age Press, 1942).

The Poets of the New York School, ed. John Bernard Myers, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Department of Fine Arts, 1969).

John Bernard Myers, Tracking the Marvelous: A Life in the New York Art World (New York: Random House 1983).

“House of Glass,” Newsweek (March 6, 1967).

“Carol Perrenot Longone, 94; The Founder of Operalogues,” New York Times (January 16, 1987).

Jeff Nunokawa, Tame Passions of Wilde: The Styles of Manageable Desire (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003).

Marshall C. Olds, “Under Mallarmé’s Wing,” Modern Languages and Literatures, Department of French Language and Literature, (University of Nebraska Press, 2001).

“Big Ivan, The Tsar Bomb (‘King of Bombs’),” (September 2009).

Andreas Papandreou, Democracy at Gunpoint: The Greek Front (Garden City: Doubleday, 1970).

Joseph Pearce, Wisdom and Innocence: A Life of G. K. Chesterton (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1996).

Henry Raymond, “Writers Leave Humphrey Talk,” New York Times (March 9, 1967): 42.

David Roessel, In Byron’s Shadow: Modern Greece in the English and American Imagination (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

Bernat Rosner and Frederic C. Tubach, An Uncommon Friendship: From Opposite Sides of the Holocaust (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010).

Albert Rothenberg, The Emerging Goddess: The Creative Process in Art, Science, and Other Fields (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979).

David Salyer, “Ronald Reagan and AIDS,” Sept/Oct 2004; http: // (accessed March 23, 2012).

Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Dechend, Hamlet’s Mill: An Essay on Myth and the Frame of Time (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1969)

Julian Seaman, “Carol Longone will Give one of her ‘Operalogues,’” Toledo Blade (May 23, 1956), 20.

Gertrude Stein Remembered, ed. Lisa Simon (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994).

Monroe K. Spears, Dionysus and the City: Modernism in Twentieth-Century Poetry (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970).

Justin Spring, Fairfield Porter: A Life in Art (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000).

Wallace Stevens, The Collected Poems of Wallace Stevens (New York: Knopf, 1954).

——, The Necessary Angel: Essays on Reality and the Imagination (London: Faber, 1960).

——, Letters, ed. Holly Stevens (New York: Knopf, 1966).

Igor Stravinsky, “In Which the Author Asks for a Moratorium on Value Judgments,” liner notes, The Rake’s Progress, Columbia Records 1964.

Vera Stravinsky, “‘La Prima Assoluta,’” liner notes, The Rake’s Progress (Columbia Records, 1964).

Donald Sutherland, On, Romanticism (New York; New York University Press, 1971).

Jean-Yves Tadié, Marcel Proust, trans. Euan Cameron (New York: Viking, 2000).

Lewis Thomas, The Lives of a Cell: Notes of a Biology Watcher (New York: Viking, 1974)

Earl Ubell, “Halloween Horror,” New York Herald Tribune, October 27, 1961.

Vassili Vassilikos, The Plant, The Well, The Angel, trans. Edmund & Mary Keeley (New York: Knopf, 1964).

Daniel M. Wegner, The Illusion of Conscious Will (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002).

Edmund White, City Boy: My Life in New York in the 1960s and ‘70s (New York: Bloomsbury, 2009).

William Butler Yeats, “Magic and Poetry,” Essays and Introductions (London: Macmillan, 1961).

——, A Vision, Collected Works, Vol. XIII, eds. Catherine E. Paul and Margaret Mills Harper (1925; New York: Scribner, 2008).

Arthur M. Young, The Reflexive Universe: Evolution of Consciousness (New York: Delacorte, 1976).